What is China's Tokamak that has the power of the sun?


Tokamak:  China and the world's first high-temperature superconducting tokamak device, Honghuang 70 (HH70) (artificial sun), has recently successfully achieved the first plasma, which is considered a major step for China towards fusion technology for clean energy. This information was given by the company Energy Singularity on Wednesday.


The completion and operation of HH70 marked the world's leading position in completing the engineering feasibility verification of high-temperature superconducting tokamak, demonstrating that China has achieved a first-mover advantage in the key field of high-temperature superconducting magnetic confinement fusion.

What is a Tokamak

Tokamak is a cylindrical-shaped device that is used to control nuclear fusion reactions. With its help, scientists can produce energy like the sun on the Earth itself. This energy is as powerful as the sun. 

How does this work:

Hot plasma: Inside the tokamak, hydrogen gas is heated to extremely high temperatures (millions of degrees Celsius), causing it to ionize and turn into plasma.

Magnetic fields: To control the plasma and keep it contained inside the tokamak, a powerful magnetic field is used. This field prevents the plasma from colliding with the walls and keeps it in a doughnut shape.

Fusion: When the plasma gets hot enough, hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei. This process releases a huge amount of energy, which can be used to produce electricity.

Advantages of Tokamak:

Clean energy: Tokamaks produce clean energy because they do not emit greenhouse gases.

Abundant fuel: Tokamaks' fuel, hydrogen, can be easily obtained from seawater.

Less radioactive waste: Tokamaks produce a small amount of radioactive waste, much less than conventional nuclear power plants.


Technical complexity: The construction and operation of tokamaks are very complex and expensive.

Energy production: As of now, the energy produced by tokamaks is less than the energy consumed.

Durability: Some components of tokamaks, such as magnetic fields, are not able to withstand extreme temperatures and pressures, which is why they need to be replaced frequently.

Tokamaks can play an important role in energy production in the future. Scientists are constantly working to improve these devices so that they can become more efficient and viable.

Tokamak in India:

In India, the Plasma Research Institute (PRI) in Gandhinagar operates two tokamaks: Aditya and SST-1. These tokamaks are used for research and development and are helping make India one of the leading countries in nuclear fusion energy.