It is freezing in Delhi. The temperature has gone below 10 degrees Celsius but farmers from Punjab and Haryana have been frozen on the border of Delhi and Haryana irrespective of this. The farmers have come with preparations to protest for six months. He spent a month protesting here and he does not seem to retreat at all. They will continue their protest till the central government withdraws three new agricultural laws. This he has to say clearly. Many are anxious for the farmers to continue the agitation for six months.
'Chari farmer strike'
Similarly, some people may find it hard to believe that there was a farmers' movement in Maharashtra for six years. For six years, no farmer involved had done agriculture, due to which there was no time for starvation, but the farmers remained firm. You may be surprised to hear this, but it is true. This peasant movement in Maharashtra has become a history. This is called the 'Chari farmer strike'. This farmers' movement was against the Khoti system in the Konkan region of Maharashtra.
Sharecropping law in maharashtra
The strike took place for the first time in Chari village near Alibag in Raigad district. Due to this, there were many important changes in the agricultural sector in Maharashtra. Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar supported this movement. You can also see the seeds of his Independent Labor Party in this movement. Narayan Nagu Patil, the leader of farmers and laborers, led this movement and forced the British to kneel. Due to this movement, the Bataidar law came into force in Maharashtra. We will know in detail about this most time-long strike of the farmers, but before that we will also try to understand the Khoti system in a brief way.
What is a khoti system?
The Khot people were big landowners. He was recognized since the time of Peshwa. Their main job was to collect revenue from the farmers on behalf of the government and to make it available to the government. The villages where the Khot people lived were called Khoti villages.
Krishiwal newspaper editor SM Deshmukh has done an in-depth study on Chari farmers strike. He says, "The Khot people used to think of themselves as the government and looted the poor peasants. These farmers used to work hard all the year but eventually all the grains went to the Khot. Not only that, but the Khot also for their personal works Used to use them. " These peasant laborers were called coals. They used to work on other's land.
Deshmukh explains, "The Khot people used to trick the farmers because they were not educated. The Khot people started a system like Kabulayat. Within this system, the farms were given on contract for 11 months. The Khot people were a In exchange of acres of land, a Khandi demanded rice. If a farmer could not give it, then it would be taken one and a half times the next year. So even after working hard, the farmers had nothing. "
"In shareholder farming, if the farmers planted vegetables or mango, coconut or jackfruit, then the fruits of that tree had the right to be damaged. This was an unwritten agreement. However, the entire community was entitled to the rented land But the Khots asserted their ownership over it. The Khots used to force the peasants and share-croppers to do their personal work. They used to work with them in their fields as well. "
Deshmukh further adds, "If a shareholder could not provide sufficient revenue, his entire family was considered a slave. This inhuman system was in force in the Konkan region."
In the late 9th century, the Khoti system began to be challenged in many places. Such efforts started in Khed Tehsil of Ratnagiri and Pen Tehsil of Raigad, but these efforts were thwarted. Between 1921 and 1923, there were agitations against the Khot people in Raigad at different levels, but all those movements Were crushed. Narayana Nagu Patil, seeing all these developments happening in front of him, decided to raise his voice against the Khoti system. For this he first visited many villages around him.
Then six-year long farmers' strike started
The Konkan Kisan Kisan Union was formed in 1927 against the Khot system. Brother Anant Chitre was the secretary of this association. This union organized several rallies in Ratnagiri and Raigad district against the Khoti system. There were several attempts to thwart the rallies.
Many times Narayan Nagu Patil and Bhai Anant Chitre were banned from addressing the rally, but the support of the farmers continued to grow. An important conference was organized on 25 December 1930 in Penn Tehsil regarding these strikes. It was also called the Colaba District Conference. At that time Rajgarh district used to be Colaba. The conference was led by Narayan Nagu Patil and brother Anant Chitre. The resolutions passed in this conference later became the basis of the movement.
There was also a 28-point demand in these proposals, which included demands like abolishing the khotti system, giving the growers the ownership of the farm and cutting interest. Apart from this, a change in the terms of Kabulayat was also demanded. After this conference, Narayan Nagu Patil and Bhai Anant Chitre took an aggressive stance and started addressing all the rallies and made the farmers aware. Thousands of farmers took out rallies in places like Khed, Tala, Mangaon, Roha, and Pen in the then Kobala district. The result was that there was a historic movement in 1933 against the Khoti system.