The form of Germany we see today was like this before 1990. Before that, it was called East and West Germany. Between the two was a fortified wall whose construction began on 13 August 1961, supported by Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union. For 28 years, this wall kept people from meeting and visiting each other.
Germany was partitioned after the Second World War. With Partition, millions of people moved to West Germany. East Germany had to pay its economic and political price as well. Given this, the stand of West Germany also became tough and later those who crossed the border illegally here had to pay the price with their lives. The security personnel on the border were ordered to shoot such people on sight. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1980, the winds of change also prevailed here. The rules on the border were relaxed and the wall was demolished in November 1989. With this Germany was reunited.
This event, which has been recorded in history, did not end here only, but due to being one of Europe's largest countries, the way for the integration of Europe was also cleared. Thus emerged the Europe and Germany that we see today. The current European Union was founded in 1990 by the Maastricht Treaty. The current European Union consists of 27 nations. Even after this, they also have one parliament, one currency, and the same rules. The person who played the most important responsibility in this whole exercise was named Mikhail Gorbachev. All this would have been largely impossible without him. He was the last President of the Soviet Union. He carried out this work in collaboration with German Chancellor Helmet Kohl.
Gorbachov's contribution was not limited to the unification of Germany and Europe but went far beyond that. He ended the years-long Cold War with America and Russia. The credit for this goes to him and his tireless efforts. Gracious, cheerful, and serious-minded, Gorbachev was awarded the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize on 6 June for his achievements.
Gorbachov became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, he made many revolutionary changes in the country since taking office. For the first time, he gave freedom to the citizens of the country to express their views. People had never imagined such freedom before. It was a big surprise for him. Not only this, apart from allowing citizens to go abroad, he released hundreds of political prisoners. Gorbachev is also credited with bringing about social, economic, and political change in this former communist country through perestroika and glasnost.
In 1991, a failed coup attempt against the Gorbachev government was also carried out. The last to do so was Russian Marshal Dmitry Yazov. He was imprisoned after this incident and was pardoned in 1994. Although this coup attempt failed, it also cleared the way for today's Soviet Russia. The then Soviet Union was dissolved in 191 itself. Strong relations between India and the Soviet Union were maintained during Gorbachov's time. In November 1986, he also came on a visit to India. Khail Gorbachev's name is taken with great respect. He had played an important role in uniting Germany, which had been ravaged by partition for years, and united Europe.