Know what are the problems of the vaccine in the time of the epidemic, the need to remove the apprehensions also

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After the manufacture of the Covid-19 vaccine, its storage and distribution work will be the most challenging. This is the real criterion on which vaccines are to be met. Many countries have started gearing up for this.


At a time when there are signs of the sharpest wave of Corona in the whole world, news of relief has come about this vaccine. Apart from the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine of Serum Institute of India, many other vaccines are being claimed to be effective. The most notable is that India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi, after meeting with the Chief Ministers of some states on November 24, 2020, has insisted on making sure that the citizens of the country can get this vaccine at the earliest. It is true that the unprecedented and historical period of horrors in the world about Corona can hardly come out of our memories, But if an effective vaccine is available to people soon and the whole world can return to its normal heights, then this hope itself will be quite comforting. However, after the manufacture of the vaccine, its storage and distribution will be the most challenging. This is the real criterion on which the vaccine has to meet.


Ever since the corona virus-borne pandemic, Kovid-19 had gained momentum in the world, almost since then it was assured that an effective vaccine would be in front of us and that the disease would be cured, but slowly - It was slowly discovered that neither corona is a common virus nor its vaccine can be made in a pinch. Not only Kovid-19, it would not have been possible to make any disease or pandemic vaccine within a period of a few months, but as unprecedented conditions created the deadly spread of the coronavirus, it demanded that somehow the vaccine The construction and trial period should be shortened, so that it is liberated as soon as possible. It is under these efforts that the situation has now become that the Corona vaccines of companies named Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca have now reached the advanced stage trials.

The third phase trial of Indian biotech company Kovaxin has started in our country and its figures will be revealed in the coming time. The vaccine Oxford-AstraZeneca, created in association with the Serum Institute of India, known as the world's largest vaccine manufacturer, has been found to be more than 70 percent effective in Phase III trials. It is believed that the corona vaccine will be available to Indian citizens in the first quarter of next year. It is possible that one of these vaccines will allow the drug regulator to use emergency use by next month. It is in this context that in many states of our country, the emphasis is being laid on strengthening the cold chain system in every district to make the vaccine accessible to the people.

Answers to apprehensions needed: The fact that needs to be kept in mind in relation to the vaccine is that their trials are still going on. In such a situation, there may be a change in the percentage of their success and the percentage of security available. Apart from the changes in the figures, there are some such fears, which hardly any vaccine manufacturer can answer. As such hardly anyone can claim a hundred percent of it that there will be no side effects of these vaccines. That is, after applying them, one may avoid the effects of coronavirus, but fatigue, headache, dizziness, It cannot be said to be free from the possibility of any other disease other than the usual symptoms like stomach upset. Similarly, how long the vaccine cannot be attacked by the coronavirus - it is not currently possible for companies to tell a definite period. The main reason for this is that all these vaccines are set to launch in the market well before the standard or prescribed period for trial and side effects.

As such, the side effects of drugs can be considered later. It is possible that these companies and governments are thinking in the right direction, but the possibility that vaccines may not have to be given due to vaccines. However, in view of the dangers of the corona, countries like the US, UK and Japan have made the advance booking of Pfizer company vaccine and the company is expecting similar booking on behalf of the Government of India, but the company is expecting a similar effect. Another problem is standing in India.

The challenge of storage and distribution: Safe storage of these vaccines is a major challenge in our country. It is worth mentioning that in order to keep these vaccines effective, it is necessary to store them at the very lowest temperature. For example, Pfizer's vaccine needs to be stored at -70 degrees, which is challenging for India and many other poor and developing countries. Keep in mind that medical freezers with temperatures of -70 to -80 degrees C are rarely found in American and European hospitals. In such a situation, in developing and hot countries like India, these vaccines will prove more effective, there is a lot of doubt. According to a central government official, more than 16 thousand cold chain storage will be required.

Even today, 50-60 percent of the country's population lives in villages and there is plenty of electricity in addition to running the heat in summer and the medical infrastructure is also very poor. However, Pfizer has announced that it will also provide an ice container with the vaccine, which can maintain a temperature of -70 for ten days. However, the pharma company Moderna has claimed that its vaccine can be preserved in a common refrigerator. Given the relatively warm climate of India, a long-term vaccine can be considered more effective in a normal refrigerator. Well, there are some other challenges. For example, the vaccine will have to reach at least 18 percent of the country's population within six months of dispatch from the company.

To say that our Health Ministry has planned to vaccinate 25-30 crore people by July 2021, but in view of other immunization campaigns and lack of awareness in the country about these, it can be said that the next on Kovid-19 It will not be easy to control till the end of the year. However, when compared to other countries of the world, it is found that India is the first country in vaccination, and every year 40 crore different vaccines are applied to its population. In such a situation, there is no denying that our country will overcome the difficulties of a vaccination campaign to curb the epidemic when Corona is successful.

No vaccine can be made in decades

There was a time when the world did not know about vaccines. Diseases such as smallpox, plague, flu, and polio caused havoc all over the world, but when a French biologist Louis Pasteur developed the chicken cholera disease vaccine, the world found a way to prevent diseases. Pasteur had also developed anthrax and rabies vaccines, in addition to cholera occurring to the patients. Vaccination campaigns started in the world on the path shown by Pasteur. Work was done in 1796 by Louis Jenner after Louis Pasteur, who developed the smallpox vaccine.

As far as the polio vaccine is concerned, it emerged in the sixth decade of the 20th century. Scientist Jonas Salk claimed the development of the first effective polio vaccine in 1952 at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A year later, in March 1953, he announced that he had tried the polio vaccine on a small group of children and found it effective. This vaccine was found to be effective on all three types of polio (type-1,2 and 3). In the year 1954, the polio vaccine was tested on 18 lakh children from 44 states of the then US. After that, it was told that the polio vaccine is 60 to 70 percent effective against type-1 virus and 90 percent against type-2 and type-3 virus. Based on these results, the Salk vaccine was licensed (patented) in 1955 and a polio vaccination campaign was started in many countries of the world, including the US.

How to start making vaccines: In fact, vaccination of infection begins with the detection of the genetic code of that virus. This year, on January 10, 2020, China shared the corona virus's genetic code with the world, after which the process of manufacturing the corona vaccine started. Under this, the genetic sequence of the virus was described, which gives an idea of ​​the changes in the virus and its behavior that gives it the strength to spread from one species to another and from one person to another. It also provides information about whether the virus will spread rapidly or slow. It tells what is the origin of this virus and under what circumstances can this virus survives and how is it possible to eradicate it. In order to make a vaccine, it is necessary to carefully read all the patterns of behavior and changes of that virus, so that there is no shortage in the vaccine made to combat them.