Life was useful for Mitharam Patil, a wealthy money lender from a little town in Maharashtra.
Small-time financiers like Mr Patil would regularly lend money to ranchers and dealers consistently, giving a crucial wellspring of financing for a rustic economy generally close out of the managing an account part, but at financing costs of around 24%.
All that changed significantly as an outcome of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's sudden restriction on November 8 of 500-and 1,000-rupee notes, which accounted for 86% of currency in circulation.
The shock initiative, described as an audacious reform, goes for focusing on rich expense evaders and completion India's "shadow economy", however it has likewise uncovered the reliance of poor agriculturists and independent companies on casual credit frameworks in a nation where a large portion of the populace has no entrance to formal saving money.
The administration has made strides, including declaring zero-adjust Jan Dhan represents needy individuals, yet development of bank offices have been low as edges are thin for generally moneylenders.
In 2001, India had 5.3 bank offices for each 100,000 individuals in rustic zones. Today that stands at just 7.8 branches, as indicated by Reserve Bank of India information.
Mr Patil was screwed over thanks to seven lakhs of useless money. He can likewise just pull back up to 24,000 rupees from his record each week, scarcely enough for his very own needs given the additionally functions as an agriculturist.
That is awful news for ranchers and dealers who had come to rely on upon Mr Patil, regardless of his high financing costs, given that bank offices are situated a long way from the town, while the procedure to acquire credits is long and lumbering.
It might likewise hurt the economy, as the casual division represents 20 for each penny of total national output and 80 for every penny of work. July-September GDP report is expected on Wednesday.
"Sowing of winter products has been begun and agriculturists seriously require cash. Be that as it may, I couldn't loan (to) them because of confinements on withdrawal," Mr Patil said.
A few agriculturists and independent companies say India's casual credit framework has ground to a virtual end, regardless of government measures to direct more finances to them, incorporating almost 21,000 crores in yield advances.
Not just are cash moneylenders attempting to loan, they are likewise attempting to get paid.
Saumya Roy, CEO of Vandana Foundation, a miniaturized scale back firm, said it has experienced troubles in gathering installments from borrowers, which will have a thump on impact on the amount they can loan to others.
"We can't continue loaning and endure misfortunes," she said.
"How can we force individuals to pay back when they don't have cash to purchase food? By what means will they pay us?"
Regardless of the possibility that ranchers or independent ventures will experience the way toward acquiring a bank advance, which incorporates rounding out structures and a few visits to the branch, bank authorities say they are excessively centered around on getting money out to dedicate time to little advances.
"We can't dispense labor to investigate cultivate credit records," said a chief in a provincial branch of State Bank of India.
For a few experts, the breakdown in the casual credit area focuses to an administration that has neglected to handle how the money economy impacts common Indians.
"It is this absence of comprehension and not valuing the significance of the trade economy out India with respect to the administration that has handled the nation in such a ridiculous circumstance today," said Sunil Kumar Sinha, a financial expert and chief of open fund at India Ratings.